The present disclosure is related to the field of telemetry. More specifically, the present disclosure is related to a system and method for predicting the destination of a patient.
Telemetry systems, such as those used in the medical field, are designed to provide continuous physiological monitoring of ambulatory patients. The telemetry system permits ambulatory patients to have the freedom to move around, which has been shown to aid in the recovery process, while being under constant physiological monitoring by either a clinician, an automated monitoring system, or both. The area in which the monitored patients are permitted to move while being monitored is restricted by the areas of the hospital or medical care facility that are designed for, and equipped, with the hardware for telemetry coverage. If a patient moves outside of the telemetry coverage area, continuous monitoring of the patient may lapse, causing delays in treatment should a medical event, such as cardiac arrest, occur during this time. It is also difficult for clinical personnel to locate the patient, when the patient is outside of the telemetry coverage area. The location of a patient within the telemetry coverage area is often determined and/or provided to clinical personnel by location services functionality employed in conjunction with the telemetry system.
Currently available technology provides alerts indicative of telemetry signal dropout that are caused when the patient goes out of the telemetry coverage area. However, by the time that these alerts are presented, monitoring coverage of the patient has already lapsed, and the specific location of the patient is unknown.BRIEF DISCLOSURE
Therefore, it is desirable to provide clinical personnel with a predictive warning of telemetry signal dropout due to an ambulatory patient leaving a telemetry coverage area.
An embodiment of a method of predicting telemetry signal dropout includes defining a telemetry coverage area by locating a telemetry antenna in the telemetry coverage area. Next, a location of a monitored patient is received with the telemetry antenna. A database records the received patient location over time. A processor calculates a trajectory and speed of the monitored patent from the received location and one or more previously received locations. The processor compares the location, trajectory, and speed of the monitored patient to the patient location, trajectory, and speed information previously recorded in the database. The processor then creates a prediction of patient destination.
An additional embodiment of a method of predicting telemetry signal dropout includes defining a telemetry coverage area. Next, a patient telemetry signal is continuously received. Then a patient location is continuously received. Next a patient trajectory and a patient speed is computed from the received patient location. Then the patient location, patient trajectory, and patient speed are recorded in a database comprising previously recorded patient locations, patient trajectories, and patient speeds. Then the patient location, patient trajectory, and patent speed are compared to the first database to correlate the patient location, patient trajectory, and patient speed to previously recorded patient locations, trajectories, and speeds. Finally, a probability that the patient will leave the telemetry coverage area is calculated.
Also disclosed herein are embodiments of a system for predictive warning of telemetry signal dropout. The system includes a remote unit worn by a patient. The remote unit transmits telemetry information. A plurality of telemetry receivers are distributed throughout a telemetry coverage area. At least one of the plurality of telemetry receivers receives the transmitted telemetry information. A location services manager receives the location signal from the access points and computes the location of the patient, the speed of the patient, and the trajectory of the patient. A patient location database records the computed location, speed, and trajectory of the patient. The patient location database also records location, speed, and trajectory from a plurality of patients in the telemetry coverage area. A location prediction computer compares the computed location, speed, and trajectory of the patient to the locations, speeds, and trajectories stored on the database to predict a patient destination and produces an alarm if the patient destination is outside of the telemetry coverage area. A graphical display receives and presents the patient destination and receives and presents the alarm.BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The receiving range 14 of each of the plurality of antennas 12 defines a telemetry coverage area 16. The receiving range 14 of each of the antennas 12 may be controlled or adjusted based on the antenna receiving strength or the transmission strength of the signals from the remote units. In an example, the same receiving range 14 may be achieved through the use of stronger antennas 12 and weaker transmission remote units as may be achieved through the use of weaker antennas 12 and stronger transmitting remote units. Within the telemetry coverage area 16, one or more of the antennas 12 receives a telemetry signal broadcasted by the remote unit (not depicted) associated with each of the patients. This telemetry signal may include measured physiological data, physiological data that is derived from the measured physiological data, or patient communications, such as patient initiated alarms or patient subjective physical assessments.
The remote unit transmits a location signal that is used to identify the location of the patient within the medical care facility. The location signal may be one that is detected by one or more of the antennas 12, in order to triangulate the remote unit associated with the patient. In an embodiment, at least three antennas receive a location signal for triangulation of the patient location; however, this is not limiting on the number of antennas 12 distributed through the telemetry coverage area 16 or the overlap of the receiving ranges 14 of the plurality of antennas 12. Alternatively, the location signal may include information indicative of the location of the patient, such as positional coordinates as determined by a GPS system within the remote unit. Therefore, the location signal may either be indicative of the actual patient location, or may be a signal that is used to derive the location of the patient within the telemetry coverage area 16.
The telemetry coverage area 16 is defined by one or more antennas 12 which may be located on multiple floors within a medical care facility. As noted above, the telemetry coverage area 16 may have antennas 12 distributed to ensure overlap of the receiving ranges of multiple antennas 12, which aids in patient triangulation.
The signals from the amplifier 22 are transmitted to a remote closet 24. The remote closet 24 collects all of the signals received by the plurality of antennas 12 in a defined area of the telemetry coverage area 16. In one example, the medical care facility includes a telemetry coverage area 16 that expands to multiple floors of the medical care facility. In such an example, a remote closet 24 may be placed at each of the floors in order to collect and process the signals received by the antennas 12 on that floor. The remote closet 24 includes a multiplexer 26 that handles the transmission of the telemetry and location information for a plurality of remote units 20 transmitting to the remove closet 24. The multiplexer 26 separates the lower frequency telemetry signals from the higher frequency location signals and directs the received signals for further processing. While the telemetry system 18 depicted in
From the multiplexer 26, the telemetry information is provided to a telemetry remote hub 28 that prepares the telemetry information for transmission from the remote closet 24 to the main closet 30 that collects all of the information from the remote closets 24 distributed throughout the telemetry system 18. The main closet 30 is centrally or otherwise conveniently located to receive the telemetry and location information from all of the remote closets 24 in the system 18. The telemetry remote hub 28 may transmit the telemetry information to a telemetry base unit 32 in the main closet 30 that receives and processes the telemetry information. In an embodiment, the transmission of telemetry information from the telemetry remote hub 28 to the telemetry base unit 32 is performed by fiber optic transmission technology and the telemetry remote hub 28 and the telemetry base unit 32 perform the signal conditioning required for the optical fiber conversion necessary for the transmission.
After the telemetry information is transmitted from the telemetry remote hub 28 to the telemetry base unit 32, the telemetry base unit 32 processes the fiber optic signal to extract the telemetry information embedded thereon. The telemetry base unit 23 sends the telemetry information to a telemetry receiver 33 that receives the telemetry information and further directs the telemetry information to the telemetry server 40.
In the remote closet 24, the separated location signals from the multiplexer 26 are provided to an access point 29. The access point 29 measures the strength of the location signal from the base unit 20 received by one or more antenna 12. In a telemetry system 18 wherein a plurality of antennas 12 are distributed throughout the telemetry coverage area, the signal strengths determined by the access point 29 can be used to triangulate the remote unit 20 as the varying signal strength from a plurality of antennas 12 may be used to determine the patient location with reference to each of the antennas receiving the location signal.
The access point 29 of the remote closet 24 provides the location information, including the received signal strengths to the main closet 30 through any number of information transmission technologies, including wire, wireless, or fiber optic technologies. An access point (AP) controller 34 is connected to each of the access points 29 if a plurality of remote closets 24 exist in the telemetry system 18. The AP controller 34 coordinates the transmission and reception of the location information from the access points 29 of each of the remote closets 24.
The location information is provided from the AP control 34 to a location services (LS) computer 36. The LS computer includes computer readable code stored on a computer readable medium (not depicted) that embodies software as detailed further herein for calculating location information regarding a patient. Software implemented by the LS computer 36 may also include software required to operate an advanced neural network (ANN), as disclosed in embodiments herein.
The LS computer 36 is further connected to a location database 38 that stores the location information from the LS computer 36 for later retrieval and reference by the software operating on the LS computer 36 in determining patient location information.
The main closet 30 transmits both the telemetry information and the location information to a telemetry server 40 that coordinates the telemetry and location information with other patient, facility, and services information that is required for the operation of other features of the telemetry system 18 that are not central to the present disclosure. Such additional telemetry system functionalities include patient medical history and electronic medical record (EMR) access, clinical staff information, medical care facility availability, and facility capacity.
The telemetry server 40 may also perform analysis of the received telemetry information, such as to process measured physiological data, derive additional physiological data from the measured physiological data, and/or apply institutional diagnostic rules such as to perform automatic or automated diagnostic tests. The telemetry server 40 transmits all of the telemetry information, and location information to the central station 42. The central station 42 may otherwise be known as the telemetry command center, or “war room.” The central station 42 is where one or more clinical staff are presented with the telemetry and location information for all of the patients currently under monitoring in the telemetry system. The telemetry information is presented to the clinical staff such that the clinical staff can remotely monitor the physiological condition of the telemetrically monitored patients depending upon changes in the monitored physiological condition of the remotely located patients, the clinical staff may electronically update a patient's diagnosis or treatment regimen, or may initiate intervention by other clinical staff with the patient. In the event that physiological conditions indicate one or more alarm conditions, the clinical staff at the central station 42 may evaluate the alarm conditions and initiate the proper response based upon those conditions.
While the above description of the telemetry system 18 has been made with respect to a large number of hardware components that operate software or firmware in order to form the functionality, data processing, and communication as disclosed above, it is understood to one of ordinary skill in the art that depending on the specific implementation of the telemetry system 18 individual components described herein may be combined into a single piece of hardware or may be implemented as a smaller module of a larger control system software. Additionally, one of ordinary skill in the art would also recognize that the communication aspects disclosed herein are merely an exemplary embodiment and that the communication and data transmission would be modified to the specific needs of the telemetry system 18 implemented within a medical care facility.
The telemetry system 18 can provide a cost effective and convenient way to monitor ambulatory patients. This benefits the patients as the ability of a recovering patient to move about the patient's surroundings has been found to aid in recovery times; however, while patients are recovering from illness or a medical procedure, they are at increased risk of being afflicted by a severe medical condition. Examples of severe medical conditions include a heart attack or stroke. Thus, these ambulatory patients still require constant monitoring. A problem arises if a telemetrically monitored patient moves outside of the telemetry coverage area 16 (
Therefore, as disclosed further herein, the LS computer 36 may provide with the location information, a prediction if an ambulatory patient will move out of the telemetry coverage area 16, thus causing telemetry signal dropout. Alternatively, the prediction of patient destination may be created using a separate location prediction computer (not depicted).
Referring back to
As noted with respect to
Computer 36 uses the previously recorded patient location information in the location database 38 to identify the instance rates of patients moving from a current location to a variety of destinations. These instance rates or probabilities may then be further detailed using artificial intelligence techniques such as artificial neural networks (ANN) or fuzzy logic in order to correlate not only the patient location, but the calculated patient trajectory and speed to the previously recorded patient location information. ANN or fuzzy logic implementations may be used to computer historical patient movement trends throughout the telemetry coverage area 16. This allows for the destination predictions to be correlated to the location information presently received and computed for the monitored patient. Therefore, the present telemetry system 18 provides improved prediction of patient destination using both currently measured and computed patient location information with historical patient movement trends obtained from the historical location information of other patients and/or the monitored patient in the same telemetry coverage area 16.
As noted above, the floor plan 10 of
The LS computer 36 further determinates a probability that the patient 50 will go to each of these destinations.
As an example, the LS computer 36 may determine, based on the historical patient movement trends and the current location, trajectory, and speed of the patient 50, that the following probabilities exist that the patient will move to each of the identified destinations:
DESTINATIONPROBABILITY %A60% B22% C8%D4%E6%
Thus from the exemplary Table above, it can be determined that the patient 50 has a 94% probability of moving forward. The patient 50 also has a 60% probability of moving to destination A, while only having a 22% probability of moving outside of the telemetry coverage area 16, to designated destination D. Therefore, the patient 50 at the specified location, speed, and trajectory will be regarded as a 22% risk for telemetry signal dropout based upon the patient leaving the telemetry coverage area 16 at destination D.
The medical care facility may define its own alarm definitions for telemetry signal dropout risk as well as define the responses that are initiated by clinical staff at the central station 42 upon the meeting of these predefined probability criteria. Some institutions may be highly risk adverse and therefore would desire to intervene any time the destination probability of the destination outside the telemetry coverage area 16 crosses a minimal threshold percentage. This threshold percentage may be relatively low, such as 10-20% likelihood, or lower, based at the discretion of the medical care facility. Alternatively, a progression of patient interactions may escalate as the probability that the patient will leave the telemetry coverage area 16 increases. These intervention escalations may begin with a page or other audible or textual alert that is sent to the remote unit 20 associated with the patient 50. This may be escalated to the dispatch of clinical staff to the location of the patient 50 or to the patient's predicted destination in order to intercept the patient 50 before the patient 50 leaves the telemetry coverage area 16. It is further understood that in alternative embodiments some or all of these responses may be automated or automatedly initiated responses and do not require clinician action in order to initiate or carry out.
The LS computer 36 (
Referring now to
DESTINATIONPROBABILITY %A59% B35% C2%D2%E2%
By referencing the above Table, it can be seen that as the patient 50 turned in the direction away from the telemetry coverage area 16 boundary and destination D, the probability that the patient would enter this destination is drastically reduced. The reduction in this destination probability of the destination D would be due to the fact that patients historically at location 52 on the trajectory and speed of patient 50, rarely turn around and head out of the telemetry coverage zone 16 to destination D.
However, in an alternative example, if the patient 50 moves from location in
DESTINATIONPROBABILITY %A5%B5%C5%D80% E5%
By reference to the above Table, it can be seen that by the time the patient 50 reaches location 54, it becomes very likely that the patient 50 will leave the telemetry coverage area 16 and move to destination D. This escalation of the probability that the patient's telemetry signal will be lost due to moving out of the telemetry coverage area 16, may trigger an appropriate response from the clinical staff at the central station 42. The clinical staff at central station 42 would dispatch clinical staff to location 54 or destination D in an attempt to first intercept the patient 50 before the patient leaves the telemetry coverage area 16, or if the clinical staff response arrives too late, the patient 50 is recovered at or near destination D with minimal telemetry signal dropout.
Referring back to
The patient location information used to determine probability of patient location outside of the telemetry coverage area 16 may be based upon reporting by clinical staff that find telemetry patients outside of the telemetry coverage area 16. The reporting of clinical staff may be analyzed and compiled in order to determine probabilities of where patients leaving the telemetry coverage area 16 may be headed after signal dropout occurs.
The LS computer 36 computes a probability determination for the likelihood that the patient leaving the telemetry coverage area 16 may be found at one of locations F or G. This probability may be similar to that previously calculated with respect to patient destination predictions. The calculated probability is transmitted to the central station 42 to be presented on a graphical display. Thus, if the patient 50 leaves the telemetry coverage area 16, the graphical display of the central station 42 may present an indication that there is a 25% likelihood that the patient 50 is at destination F while there is a 50% probability that the patient 50 is at destination G. The probabilities provided in this determination may or may not add up to 100% due to rounding, or the consideration of other locations. For the sake of simplicity, in some embodiments, only those locations that are above a predetermined probability threshold are presented as likely options. Alternatively, the system could present all the calculated probabilities.
It is to be understood that the effectiveness of this type of location prediction outside of the telemetry coverage area 16 may be dependent upon a clinical staff reporting system, whereby the patient location information is collected that is indicative of where the clinical staff actually locate the patient 50 outside of the telemetry coverage area 16. This type of reporting identifies the locations outside of the telemetry coverage area 16 where the patients are likely to go after telemetry signal dropout.
In an additional aspect, the location database 38 keeps track of all interventions on patient movement. Often, these are recorded by clinical staff after intervening on patient movement. If left unreported or unaccounted for, these interventions may skew the probabilities of the patients leaving the telemetry coverage area 16, such as to under report the actual instance of patient signal dropout, in instances where no intervention is initiated. Therefore, the LS computer 36 may credit an interaction as full or partial consideration that the patient left the telemetry coverage area.
With respect to
DESTINATIONPROBABILITY %A60% B22% C8%D4%E6%
Referring to the table above, based upon the location, trajectory, and speed of the patient 50, and historical patient movement trends, the LS computer 36 may compute that the patient 50 is relatively unlikely to leave the telemetry coverage area 16 to go to destination D. In this instance, the patient 50 is likely to pass very close to the edge of the telemetry coverage area 16 and there is a potential for the patient to leave the telemetry coverage area 16 resulting in telemetry signal dropout. However, based upon the historical patient movement trends and the monitored patient location, trajectory, and speed, the LS computer 36 indicates to the clinical staff at the central station 42 a low probability that the patient will leave the telemetry coverage area 16. Therefore, no intervention, or a low intervention, may be initiated, thus conserving resources and not interrupting the ambulatory movement of the patient 50 or the current tasks being performed by clinicians.
In embodiments of the telemetry system 18, the LS computer 36 may further be communicatively coupled to a database of patient demographic information (not depicted), or alternatively, the location database 38 may also include patient demographic information that may be further used to increase the accuracy of the destination predictions of the telemetry system 18. The stored demographic information may correlate the patient's age, gender, or ethnicity with particular historical patient movement trends or behavior patterns. In one such example, referring to
In a still further embodiment of the telemetry system 18, the location database 38 may also store the historical movement trends for each individual patient 50 separately from the group of all patients as a whole. Thus, the LS computer 36 may use the specific movement history of each patient in order to more accurately predict where that patient is going. This additional personalized movement trend determination may help to reduce false positives, resulting in fewer interventions or intervention escalations, requiring the medical care facility resources and staff time. One such example of a personalized patient historical movement trend would be that if patient 50 every morning goes to location B for a particular treatment, therapy, or to visit another particular patient. Despite the fact that the historical patient movement trends on a whole may indicate that a generic patient at the patient's 50 location, trajectory, and speed is likely to leave the telemetry coverage area 16 and move to destination D, the probability of this particular patient 50 following that movement path is comparatively low. Alternatively, the additional personalized movement trend determination may help to proactively warn clinicians of patients at greater risk of leaving the telemetry coverage area 16 than the general patient population.
Referring now to
In an embodiment of this patient destination prediction scheme, the destination probabilities may appear at:
DESTINATIONPROBABILITY %A47%B22%C20%D 5%E 6%F12%G 8%H 7%I 5%J10%
A feature of the embodiment of floor plan 60 is apparent from this example in that it may be noted that the patient 50 has a greater probability of leaving the telemetry coverage area 16 at destination J, causing telemetry and location signal dropout, than the much closer destination D. Thus, clinical staff at the central station 42 are provided with a warning of a possibly counter intuitive destination prediction and may monitor the location of the patient 50 more closely, or provide the necessary intervention, or intervention escalation with respect to the more probable destination causing signal dropout.
As stated previously, the embodiments of the floor plan 10, 60 are merely exemplary as to the type of graphical presentation that may be made by the central station 42 to clinical staff. Alternative to the graphical depiction of these figures, graphical indications that only focus on the possible patient point of departure from the telemetry coverage area 16 may be implemented. These embodiments may only track the location, speed, and trajectory of the patient 50, while noting only those paths and probabilities that lead to telemetry signal dropout. Alternatively, rather than specific patient vectors and discrete destination locations, a scatter plot or heat map or other type of graphical representation of probability may be used to graphically depict the likelihood that the patient 50 would move to a particular destination.
Finally, as mentioned above, the central station 42 may rather present the destination predictions in a more simplistic numeral or textural form such, as in the non-limiting example, the tables presented above, or may only be presented to the clinical staff at the central station 42 only upon meeting one or more probability thresholds for clinical staff intervention, or intervention escalation.
This written description uses examples to disclose various embodiments, including the best mode, and also to enable any person skilled in the art to make and use these embodiments. The patentable scope is defined by the claims may extend to include other examples not explicitly listed that occur to those skilled in the art. Such other examples are intended to be within the scope of the claims if they have structural elements that do not differ from the literal language of the claims, or if they include equivalent elements with insubstantial differences from the literal languages of the claims.
Various alternatives and embodiments are contemplated as being with in the scope of the following claims, particularly pointing out and distinctly claiming the subject matter of the present disclosure.